After the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, taking the name Augustus, with solemn, quasi-religious overstones, learning from Iulius Caesar's fate to veil his power beneath traditional forms, he ruled for forty-five years, and when he died, 'father of his country' (pater patriae) and full of honours, the transfer of power to his stepson Tiberius went almost without a hitch. (Colin Michael Wells, 2004: 14)