While the inscription’s attribution of "The Virgin of Louvain" to Jan Gossaert was originally considered unquestionable, Friedländer suggests that its style is not that of him, but rather of Orley, dating from around 1520. The Renaissance architecture is rather contrived and not in proportion to the panel’s figures, which reflects his own, influenced by Raffaello Santi. (Max Friedländer, 1972)